We’ve talked about some old-times so far but justice is very topical at present. One of the most recent great philosophers is John Rawls and he saw justice as something completely different from the others. He saw it as a safety net. Not the principle that promotes happiness, like Mill. Not …

Utilitarianism condones actions that benefit everyone the most. Specifically, “the greatest possible benefit, for the greatest possible number”. So therefore any act or law is just if it maximizes utility or happiness. Simple. It was a useful theory in its time as it justified the changing of laws to make …

As the age of enlightenment began, the church lost its iron grip over western peoples’ minds. From the late 1700’s justice became defined as either the very teleological (the science of outcomes) Utilitarianism or Kant’s very deontological (the science of duty) categorical imperative. Let’s do the hard one first. Kant was genius. …

Western philosophy starts to get substantial about the time of Plato and Aristotle, so let’s start there. Plato saw justice as merely order, which is boring and unhelpful. If a thing was ordered, it was just. So as long as the king as a good king who understood his place …

It seems liberty must have its limits or we fail to produce a society we can live in. Perhaps conservatives are right and change comes with a societal cost that we can’t afford when change comes too fast. But, if we limit change must impinge on someone’s liberty. You see, no …

A fully mature and adult human can choose the life they want to live for themselves and should be able to do that from a diverse range of options. But here is the really really hard part. If a human being spends their whole life challenging every custom, avoiding every norm and choosing whatever unusual pronoun …